July 5th All Events

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July 5th, 2008 (July 05 2008)DeathHasan Dogan, 37th president of the Turkish Football Federation (born in 1956)
July 5th, 2007 (July 05 2007)DeathRegine Crespin, French operatic soprano (born in 1927)
July 5th, 2007 (July 05 2007)DeathKerwin Mathews, American actor (born in 1926)
July 5th, 2007 (July 05 2007)DeathGeorge Melly, British jazz & blues musician (born in 1926)
July 5th, 2006 (July 05 2006)EventNorth Korea launched at least two short-range Nodong-2 missiles, one SCUD missile and one long-range Taepodong-2 missile.
July 5th, 2006 (July 05 2006)EventEmergency United Nations Security Council meeting held at the U.N in New York City because of the North Korean missile tests a day before.
July 5th, 2006 (July 05 2006)DeathKenneth Lay, American businessman (born in 1942)
July 5th, 2005 (July 05 2005)DeathJames Stockdale, U.S. Navy vice admiral (born in 1923)
July 5th, 2005 (July 05 2005)DeathShirley Goodman, American singer (born in 1936)
July 5th, 2004 (July 05 2004)EventFirst Indonesian presidential election by the nation.
July 5th, 2004 (July 05 2004)DeathHugh Shearer, Prime Minister of Jamaica (born in 1923)
July 5th, 2004 (July 05 2004)DeathRodger Ward, American race car driver (born in 1921)
July 5th, 2003 (July 05 2003)EventSARS is declared to be contained by the WHO.
July 5th, 2003 (July 05 2003)DeathRoman Lyashenko, Russian ice hockey player (born in 1979)
July 5th, 2002 (July 05 2002)DeathKaty Jurado, Mexican actress (born in 1924)
July 5th, 2002 (July 05 2002)DeathTed Williams, American baseball player (born in 1918)Ted Williams Quotes
July 5th, 2001 (July 05 2001)DeathErnie K-Doe, American singer (born in 1936)
July 5th, 1998 (July 05 1998)EventJapan launches a probe to Mars, and thus joins the United States and Russia as a space exploring nation.
July 5th, 1998 (July 05 1998)DeathSid Luckman, American football player (born in 1916)
July 5th, 1997 (July 05 1997)DeathMrs. Miller, American singer (born in 1907)
July 5th, 1996 (July 05 1996)EventDolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.
July 5th, 1996 (July 05 1996)DeathErik Wickberg, The Salvation Army general (born in 1904)
July 5th, 1994 (July 05 1994)EventThe United States announced it would refuse further unrestricted immigration from Haiti.
July 5th, 1991 (July 05 1991)BirthJason Dolley, American actor
July 5th, 1991 (July 05 1991)DeathHoward Nemerov, American poet (born in 1920)
July 5th, 1989 (July 05 1989)EventIran-Contra Affair: Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service.
July 5th, 1989 (July 05 1989)BirthJoseph King, American musician (Canvas)
July 5th, 1987 (July 05 1987)EventFirst instance of the LTTE using suicide attacks on Sri Lankan Army. The Black Tigers are born and in the following years continue to use it to deadly effect.
July 5th, 1985 (July 05 1985)BirthStephanie McIntosh, Australian pop singer and actress
July 5th, 1985 (July 05 1985)BirthNick O Malley, British musician (Arctic Monkeys)
July 5th, 1984 (July 05 1984)BirthYu Yamada, Ryukyuan model, actress and singer
July 5th, 1983 (July 05 1983)BirthZheng Jie, Chinese tennis player
July 5th, 1983 (July 05 1983)DeathHarry James, American musician (born in 1916)
July 5th, 1982 (July 05 1982)BirthAlberto Gilardino, Italian footballer
July 5th, 1982 (July 05 1982)BirthPhilippe Gilbert, Belgian cyclist
July 5th, 1981 (July 05 1981)BirthJesse Crain, Canadian baseball player
July 5th, 1981 (July 05 1981)BirthRyan Hansen, American actor
July 5th, 1980 (July 05 1980)BirthEva Green, French actress
July 5th, 1980 (July 05 1980)BirthJason Wade, American musician (Lifehouse)
July 5th, 1980 (July 05 1980)BirthDavid Rozehnal, Czech footballer
July 5th, 1979 (July 05 1979)BirthStiliyan Petrov, Bulgarian footballer
July 5th, 1979 (July 05 1979)BirthShane Filan, Irish musician (Westlife)
July 5th, 1979 (July 05 1979)BirthAmelie Mauresmo, French tennis player
July 5th, 1977 (July 05 1977)EventMilitary coup in Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto the very first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan overthrown.
July 5th, 1977 (July 05 1977)BirthRoyce Da 5 9", American rapper
July 5th, 1977 (July 05 1977)BirthNicolas Kiefer, German tennis player.
July 5th, 1976 (July 05 1976)BirthNuno Gomes, Portuguese footballer
July 5th, 1976 (July 05 1976)BirthMarina Dias, Brazilian model
July 5th, 1976 (July 05 1976)BirthBizarre, American rapper (D12)
July 5th, 1975 (July 05 1975)EventArthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.Arthur Ashe Quotes
July 5th, 1975 (July 05 1975)EventCape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.
July 5th, 1975 (July 05 1975)BirthHernan Crespo, Argentinian footballer
July 5th, 1975 (July 05 1975)BirthGunnar H. Thomsen, Faroese musician (Tyr)Thom Gunn Quotes
July 5th, 1975 (July 05 1975)BirthKip Gamblin, Australian dancer and actor
July 5th, 1975 (July 05 1975)BirthAi Sugiyama, Japanese tennis player
July 5th, 1975 (July 05 1975)DeathGilda dalla Rizza, Italian soprano (born in 1892)
July 5th, 1974 (July 05 1974)BirthMarcio Amoroso, Brazilian footballer
July 5th, 1973 (July 05 1973)EventCatastrophic BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) in Kingman, Arizona, following a fire that broke out as propane was being transferred from a railroad car to a storage tank, kills 11 firefighters. This explosion has become a classic incident studied in fire department training programs worldwide.
July 5th, 1973 (July 05 1973)BirthMarcus Allback, Swedish footballer
July 5th, 1973 (July 05 1973)BirthBengt Lagerberg, Swedish musician (The Cardigans)
July 5th, 1973 (July 05 1973)BirthRoisin Murphy, Irish musician
July 5th, 1973 (July 05 1973)BirthRene Spies, German bobsledder
July 5th, 1972 (July 05 1972)BirthLetha Weapons, porn actress
July 5th, 1971 (July 05 1971)EventRight to vote: the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, is formally certified by President Richard Nixon.
July 5th, 1971 (July 05 1971)BirthDerek McInnes, Scottish footballer
July 5th, 1970 (July 05 1970)EventAir Canada Flight 621 crashes near Toronto International Airport killing 109 people.
July 5th, 1970 (July 05 1970)BirthMac Dre, American rapper (died in 2004)
July 5th, 1969 (July 05 1969)BirthJohn LeClair, American hockey player
July 5th, 1969 (July 05 1969)BirthRZA, American rapper (Wu-Tang Clan)
July 5th, 1969 (July 05 1969)BirthJenji Kohan, American television writer and producer
July 5th, 1969 (July 05 1969)DeathWalter Gropius, German architect (born in 1883)
July 5th, 1969 (July 05 1969)DeathWilhelm Backhaus, German pianist (born in 1884)
July 5th, 1969 (July 05 1969)DeathLeo McCarey, American film director (born in 1898)
July 5th, 1969 (July 05 1969)DeathTom Mboya, Kenyan politician (born in 1930)
July 5th, 1968 (July 05 1968)BirthKen Akamatsu, Mangaka
July 5th, 1968 (July 05 1968)BirthKenji Ito, Japanese composer
July 5th, 1968 (July 05 1968)BirthJohn Ruskin a.k.a. Nardwuar the Human Serviette, Canadian journalistJohn Ruskin Quotes
July 5th, 1968 (July 05 1968)BirthAlex Zulle, Swiss cyclist
July 5th, 1967 (July 05 1967)BirthSilvia Ziche, Italian comics artist
July 5th, 1966 (July 05 1966)BirthKathryn Erbe, American actress
July 5th, 1966 (July 05 1966)BirthSusannah Doyle, British actress
July 5th, 1966 (July 05 1966)BirthGianfranco Zola, Italian footballer
July 5th, 1966 (July 05 1966)DeathGeorge de Hevesy, Hungarian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (born in 1885)
July 5th, 1965 (July 05 1965)BirthEyran Katsenelenbogen, Israeli jazz pianist
July 5th, 1965 (July 05 1965)DeathPorfirio Rubirosa, Dominican diplomat and international playboy (born in 1909)
July 5th, 1963 (July 05 1963)BirthEdie Falco, American actress
July 5th, 1963 (July 05 1963)BirthRuss Lorenson, American singer and actor
July 5th, 1962 (July 05 1962)EventAlgeria becomes independent from France.
July 5th, 1961 (July 05 1961)BirthIsabelle Poulenard, French soprano
July 5th, 1960 (July 05 1960)BirthPruitt Taylor Vince, American actor
July 5th, 1960 (July 05 1960)BirthJames M. Kelly, American politician
July 5th, 1960 (July 05 1960)BirthBrad Loree, Canadian actor and stunt performer
July 5th, 1959 (July 05 1959)BirthMarc Cohn, American singer and songwriter
July 5th, 1958 (July 05 1958)EventFirst ascent of Gasherbrum I, 11th highest peak on the earth.
July 5th, 1958 (July 05 1958)BirthPaul Daniel, British opera and symphony conductor
July 5th, 1958 (July 05 1958)BirthTzipi Livni, Israeli politician
July 5th, 1958 (July 05 1958)BirthBill Watterson, American cartoonistBill Watterson Quotes
July 5th, 1957 (July 05 1957)BirthDavid Hanson, politician
July 5th, 1957 (July 05 1957)BirthDavid Pinkney , British Touring Car Racer
July 5th, 1957 (July 05 1957)BirthDoug Wilson, Canadian hockey player
July 5th, 1957 (July 05 1957)DeathCharles Sherwood Noble, American-born inventor
July 5th, 1956 (July 05 1956)BirthPatsy Pease, American actress
July 5th, 1956 (July 05 1956)BirthJames Lofton, American football player and coach
July 5th, 1955 (July 05 1955)BirthPeter McNamara, Australian tennis player
July 5th, 1954 (July 05 1954)EventThe BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.
July 5th, 1954 (July 05 1954)EventAndhra Pradesh High Court is established.
July 5th, 1954 (July 05 1954)BirthLeni Bjorklund, Swedish politician
July 5th, 1954 (July 05 1954)BirthJohn Wright, New Zealand cricketer
July 5th, 1954 (July 05 1954)BirthJimmy Crespo, American guitarist (Aerosmith)
July 5th, 1951 (July 05 1951)EventWilliam Shockley invents the junction transistor.
July 5th, 1951 (July 05 1951)BirthRich Gossage, American baseball player
July 5th, 1951 (July 05 1951)BirthKeiko Fuji, Japanese enka singer
July 5th, 1950 (July 05 1950)EventKorean War: Task Force SmithFirst clash between American and North Korean forces.
July 5th, 1950 (July 05 1950)EventZionism: The Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel.
July 5th, 1950 (July 05 1950)BirthHuey Lewis, American musician (Huey Lewis & The News)
July 5th, 1950 (July 05 1950)BirthMichael Monarch, American guitarist (Steppenwolf)
July 5th, 1948 (July 05 1948)EventBritish National Health Service Act enacted.
July 5th, 1948 (July 05 1948)BirthWilliam Hootkins, American actor (died in 2005)
July 5th, 1948 (July 05 1948)DeathGeorges Bernanos, French writer (born in 1888)
July 5th, 1948 (July 05 1948)DeathCarole Landis, American actress (born in 1919)
July 5th, 1947 (July 05 1947)EventLarry Doby signs a contract with the Cleveland Indians baseball team, becoming the first black player in the American League. (Jackie Robinson had broken the color barrier with the Brooklyn Dodgers in the National League 11 weeks earlier.)
July 5th, 1946 (July 05 1946)EventThe bikini is introduced in Paris, France.
July 5th, 1946 (July 05 1946)BirthPierre-Marc Johnson, Quebecois lawyer, physician and politician
July 5th, 1946 (July 05 1946)BirthPaul Smith, British fashion designer
July 5th, 1946 (July 05 1946)BirthGerardus t Hooft, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laurete
July 5th, 1945 (July 05 1945)EventWorld War II: Liberation of the Philippines declared.
July 5th, 1945 (July 05 1945)BirthHumberto Benitez Trevino, Mexican Politician and Attorney General of Mexico.
July 5th, 1945 (July 05 1945)DeathJohn Curtin, 14th Prime Minister of Australia (born in 1885)
July 5th, 1943 (July 05 1943)EventThe Battle of Kursk, the largest full-scale battle in history, included world largest tank battle at Prokhorovka village, July 12.
July 5th, 1943 (July 05 1943)EventWorld War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (Operation Husky, July 10, 1943).
July 5th, 1943 (July 05 1943)BirthCurt Blefary, American baseball player (died in 2001)
July 5th, 1943 (July 05 1943)BirthRobbie Robertson, Canadian guitarist (The Band).
July 5th, 1942 (July 05 1942)BirthJohannes Lohr, German footballer and trainer
July 5th, 1941 (July 05 1941)EventWorld War II: German troops reach the Dniepr River.
July 5th, 1940 (July 05 1940)EventWorld War II: The United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations.
July 5th, 1940 (July 05 1940)BirthChuck Close, American painter and photographerChuck D Quotes
July 5th, 1939 (July 05 1939)BirthBooker Edgerson, American football player
July 5th, 1938 (July 05 1938)BirthRonnie Self, American rock singer and songwriter (died in 1981)
July 5th, 1937 (July 05 1937)EventSpam, the luncheon meat, was introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
July 5th, 1937 (July 05 1937)EventHighest recorded temperature in Canada, at Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan: 45 C (113 F).
July 5th, 1936 (July 05 1936)BirthShirley Knight, American actress
July 5th, 1936 (July 05 1936)BirthJames Mirrlees, Scottish economist, Nobel Prize laureate
July 5th, 1935 (July 05 1935)EventThe National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
July 5th, 1935 (July 05 1935)BirthJohn Gilmore, American true crime author
July 5th, 1934 (July 05 1934)Event"Bloody Thursday"Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.
July 5th, 1932 (July 05 1932)BirthBilly Laughlin, American actor (died in 1948)
July 5th, 1932 (July 05 1932)BirthGyula Horn, former Hungarian prime minister
July 5th, 1932 (July 05 1932)DeathSasha Cherny, Russian poet (born in 1880)
July 5th, 1929 (July 05 1929)DeathHenry Lincoln Johnson, Member of 369th regiment (aka Harlem Hell Fighters), first American to receive the Croix de guerre (born in 1897)
July 5th, 1928 (July 05 1928)BirthWarren Oates, American actor (died in 1982)
July 5th, 1928 (July 05 1928)BirthPierre Mauroy, French politician
July 5th, 1928 (July 05 1928)BirthKatherine Helmond, American actress
July 5th, 1927 (July 05 1927)DeathAlbrecht Kossel, German physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (born in 1853)
July 5th, 1924 (July 05 1924)BirthNiels Jannasch, Canadian historian and museum curator (died in 2001)
July 5th, 1924 (July 05 1924)BirthJanos Starker, Hungarian cellist
July 5th, 1920 (July 05 1920)BirthMary Louise Hancock, American politician and activist
July 5th, 1920 (July 05 1920)DeathMax Klinger, German artist (born in 1857)
July 5th, 1918 (July 05 1918)BirthGeorge Rochberg, American composer (died in 2005)
July 5th, 1918 (July 05 1918)BirthRene Lecavalier, French Canadian radio host and television sportscaster (died in 1999)
July 5th, 1915 (July 05 1915)BirthJohn Woodruff, American athlete (died in 2007)
July 5th, 1913 (July 05 1913)BirthSmiley Lewis, American musician (died in 1966)
July 5th, 1911 (July 05 1911)BirthGeorges Pompidou, French politician (died in 1974)
July 5th, 1910 (July 05 1910)BirthGeorges Vedel, French public law (died in 2002)
July 5th, 1908 (July 05 1908)DeathJonas Lie, Norwegian author (born in 1833)
July 5th, 1905 (July 05 1905)BirthMyles Horton, American educator and Civil Rights Movement teacher (died in 1990)
July 5th, 1904 (July 05 1904)BirthHarold Acton, American writer and dilettante (died in 1994)
July 5th, 1904 (July 05 1904)BirthErnst Mayr, American biologist (died in 2005)
July 5th, 1904 (July 05 1904)BirthMilburn Stone, American actor (died in 1980)
July 5th, 1904 (July 05 1904)DeathAbai Kunanbaiuli, Kazakh poet (born in 1845)
July 5th, 1902 (July 05 1902)BirthHenry Cabot Lodge, Jr., American diplomat (died in 1985)Henry Cabot Lodge Quotes
July 5th, 1901 (July 05 1901)BirthSergey Obraztsov, Soviet puppet master (died in 1992)
July 5th, 1899 (July 05 1899)BirthMarcel Achard, French playwright, screenwriter and author (died in 1974)
July 5th, 1898 (July 05 1898)BirthYip Man, Ving Tsun Sifu and Master of Style (Gung-Gung) (died in 1972)
July 5th, 1895 (July 05 1895)BirthGordon Jacob, English composer (died in 1984)
July 5th, 1891 (July 05 1891)BirthJohn Howard Northrop, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (died in 1987)
July 5th, 1891 (July 05 1891)BirthTin Ujevic, Croatian poet (died in 1955)
July 5th, 1890 (July 05 1890)BirthFrederick Lewis Allen, American social historian (died in 1954)Frederick Lewis Allen Quotes
July 5th, 1889 (July 05 1889)BirthJean Cocteau, French writer (died in 1963)Jean Cocteau Quotes
July 5th, 1888 (July 05 1888)BirthHerbert Spencer Gasser, American physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (died in 1963)Herbert Spencer Quotes
July 5th, 1886 (July 05 1886)BirthWillem Drees, Dutch politician (died in 1988)
July 5th, 1885 (July 05 1885)BirthBlas Infante, Spanish politician (died in 1936)
July 5th, 1885 (July 05 1885)BirthAndre Lhote, French painter (died in 1962)
July 5th, 1884 (July 05 1884)EventGermany takes possession of Cameroon.
July 5th, 1882 (July 05 1882)BirthInayat Khan, Indian sufi (died in 1927).
July 5th, 1880 (July 05 1880)BirthJan Kubelik, Czech violinist (died in 1940)
July 5th, 1879 (July 05 1879)BirthWanda Landowska, Polish harpsichordist (died in 1959)
July 5th, 1879 (July 05 1879)BirthDwight F. Davis, American tennis player and politician (died in 1945)
July 5th, 1878 (July 05 1878)EventThe coat of arms of the Baku governorate was established.
July 5th, 1874 (July 05 1874)BirthEugen Fischer, Nazi physician (died in 1967)
July 5th, 1872 (July 05 1872)BirthEdouard Herriot, French politician (died in 1957)
July 5th, 1865 (July 05 1865)EventThe Salvation Army is founded in the East End of London, England.
July 5th, 1862 (July 05 1862)DeathHeinrich Georg Bronn, German geologist (born in 1800)
July 5th, 1860 (July 05 1860)BirthRobert Bacon, American politician (died in 1919)
July 5th, 1859 (July 05 1859)DeathCharles Cagniard de la Tour, French physicist (born in 1777)
July 5th, 1853 (July 05 1853)BirthCecil Rhodes, British founder of Rhodesia (died in 1902)
July 5th, 1841 (July 05 1841)BirthWilliam C. Whitney, American financier (died in 1904)
July 5th, 1833 (July 05 1833)EventAdmiral Charles Napier defeats the navy of the Portuguese usurper Dom Miguel at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
July 5th, 1833 (July 05 1833)DeathNicephore Niepce, French inventor (born in 1765)
July 5th, 1830 (July 05 1830)EventFrance invades Algeria.
July 5th, 1829 (July 05 1829)BirthIgnacio Mariscal, Writer and Mexican diplomat (died in 1910)
July 5th, 1820 (July 05 1820)BirthWilliam John Macquorn Rankine, Scottish engineer and physicist (died in 1872)John Scott Quotes
July 5th, 1814 (July 05 1814)EventWar of 1812: Battle of ChippawaAmerican Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
July 5th, 1813 (July 05 1813)EventWar of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York begin.
July 5th, 1811 (July 05 1811)EventVenezuela declares independence from Spain.
July 5th, 1810 (July 05 1810)BirthP.T. Barnum, American circus owner (died in 1891)P.T. Barnum Quotes
July 5th, 1809 (July 05 1809)EventBattle of Wagram starts, the two-day battle was the largest yet of the Napoleonic Wars.
July 5th, 1805 (July 05 1805)BirthRobert Fitz Roy, British naval officer and scientist (died in 1865)
July 5th, 1803 (July 05 1803)EventThe convention of Artlenburg leads to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).
July 5th, 1801 (July 05 1801)BirthDavid Farragut, American naval commander (died in 1870)
July 5th, 1794 (July 05 1794)BirthSylvester Graham, American nutritionist (died in 1851)
July 5th, 1775 (July 05 1775)EventUS Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.
July 5th, 1773 (July 05 1773)DeathFrancisco Jose Freire, Portuguese historian and philologist (born in 1719) Philo Quotes
July 5th, 1770 (July 05 1770)EventBattle of Chesma and Battle of Larga between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
July 5th, 1719 (July 05 1719)DeathMeinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, Irish general (born in 1641)
July 5th, 1718 (July 05 1718)BirthFrancis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, Viceroy of Ireland (died in 1794)
July 5th, 1717 (July 05 1717)BirthPedro III of Portugal, consort of Maria I of Portugal (died in 1786)
July 5th, 1715 (July 05 1715)DeathCharles Ancillon, French Huguenot pastor (born in 1659)
July 5th, 1687 (July 05 1687)EventIsaac Newton publishes Philosophi? Naturalis Principia Mathematica.Isaac Newton Quotes
July 5th, 1676 (July 05 1676)DeathCarl Gustaf Wrangel, Swedish soldier (born in 1613)
July 5th, 1675 (July 05 1675)BirthMary Walcott, American accuser at the Salem witch trials
July 5th, 1666 (July 05 1666)DeathAlbert VI of Bavaria (born in 1584)
July 5th, 1653 (July 05 1653)BirthThomas Pitt, British Governor of Madras (died in 1726)
July 5th, 1610 (July 05 1610)EventJohn Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland.
July 5th, 1586 (July 05 1586)BirthThomas Hooker, Connecticut colonist (died in 1647)
July 5th, 1539 (July 05 1539)DeathSt. Anthony Maria Zaccaria, Italian saint (born in 1502)
July 5th, 1472 (July 05 1472)DeathCharles of Artois, Count of Eu, French military leader (born in 1394)
July 5th, 1375 (July 05 1375)DeathCharles III of Alencon, French archbishop (born in 1337)
July 5th, 1321 (July 05 1321)BirthJoan of The Tower, Queen consort of Scotland (died in 1362)
July 5th, 1316 (July 05 1316)DeathInfante Ferdinand of Majorca (born in 1278)
July 5th, 1295 (July 05 1295)EventScotland and France form an alliance, the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England.

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